Soil sampling studies provide characterization of historic contamination.
- Surface Sample Studies - Samples collected from shallow depths to achieve a general characterization of contaminant levels and distribution. An important part of environmental assessment, where historic land use is a concern.
- Column Studies - Discrete samples from specific depths achieve elevation-based characterization of contamination. Commonly used in pre-dredge sampling studies, where new docks will be constructed. Depths commonly exceed 40 feet below surface.